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Posted By : Allan Pross
6/3/2020 7:24 PM
Child abuse is considered to be a socially constructed problem. Childhood is a time when children develop their abilities, intelligence, skills and individual personalities. According to modern conception, the society should protect and foster them as well as safeguard the innocence of childhood. The impact of child abuse is usually discussed in terms of behavioral, psychological, physical, and societal consequences. However, they may be completely separated https://cheap-papers.com/. One will hardly deny the significance of the issue of psychological consequences of maltreatment towards children and the urgency of its solution. Numerous psychological problems arising from child abuse are a common thing. The impact of child abuse is far greater than its visible effects. Such negative experiences influence the development of a child and have consequences that sometimes last a lifetime. It is evident that childhood problems often result in later psychiatric disorders including drug addiction, depression and other mental problems. Child maltreatment is also considered to be a risk factor for the psychological problem development of many adults. Child abuse is a psychological trauma. It affects basic regulatory processes in the brain stem, memory, emotions, regulation of arousal and affect, perception of self and the world as well as the integrative functioning of the central nervous system. Traumatic experiences are stored in the mind of children and lead to fear associated with the original trauma. Nowadays, child abuse is a destructive factor that can confuse a person and have an impact on mental health. Sometimes, children experience sexual abuse. In many cases, it is committed by a person responsible for the child, such as a parent, babysitters, or day-care advisors. It is a traumatic experience that usually leads to psychological disorders. Emotional abuse (it presupposes mental, verbal and psychological maltreatment) and physical abuse (includes punching, hitting, kicking, shaking, burning, or beating) may also have a negative effect on the child’s psychological health. The effects of any abuse type are unlimited and may last a lifetime. The ability to survive and severity of influences depends on a variety of factors including the type and extend of abuse, frequency, the age of a child, the relationship with the abuser and others. The consequences are also dependent on the child’s inner strength, personality traits, and the support from people who are around. Among the most common immediate psychological consequences of child abuse are fear, isolation, depression, and inability to trust. They usually lead to the decreased self-esteem, anxiety and hopelessness. All of the mentioned difficulties may cause the development of anti-social behavior and lifelong relationship problems. Abused children are apt to be engaged in violent behaviors and are likely to be diagnosed with personality disorders. It was found out that almost 80% of abused people experience at least one psychiatric disorder till the age of 21. Specific changes in key regions in and around the hippocampus in the brains of young adults who were maltreated or neglected in childhood as the result of the researches in the field. The above-mentioned is provided owing to brain scans and a variety of research experiments. Such study gives a helpful measure to elucidate the transition from child abuse to psychological trauma: it is subiculum that is responsible for the diverse negative aftereffects of stress. The thorough examination of this information and other points related to the issue, for example, risk factors of child abuse and neglect and their timely discerning, is a good foundation to deal effectively with the problem. There are a number of risk factors that are associated with maltreatment and child abuse. These factors may be found in the parents’ background, environmental situation and child’s attributes. It is difficult to find a single cause of child abuse and maltreatment as it occurs across religious, socioeconomic, racial, cultural and ethnic groups. That is why scientists identified risk factors are commonly associated with abuse. Children living in families and environments in which these attributes exist have a higher probability of experiencing abuse. However, the presence of such factor does not necessarily mean that they will result in child abuse. It is believed that child abuse and maltreatment arises from the interaction of several factors. It is necessary to define factors that induce a person to be violent or neglectful towards a child in order to prevent child maltreatment. The most common ones include: offender’s childhood, drug or alcohol addiction, unemployment, marital conflict, domestic violence, narcissism, isolation, parents’ immaturity and ignorance of proper behavior, family stress, social and financial problems. Families involved in child abuse are likely to exhibit a pattern of day-to-day interaction that is characterized by high negative behavior responsiveness, low positive behavior responsiveness, and minimal social exchange. The childhood histories of children who have been abused or neglected by parents have been consistently described as violent, deprived, or both, and role reversal is the basis. I would also like to expose environmental factors, which include family violence, overcrowding in the house, multiple stresses within the family, poverty or lack of opportunity, and the case of a non biological adult. The economic situation in the region should be taken into account, because children from poor families are more prone to be abused by their parents, for instance, negatively affected by the situation of unemployment. Economic pressure, values related to the child’s role in the family, attitudes to the physical punishment as well as the degree of parents’ social support account for the differences of child abuse in various ethnic, social, racial and religious groups. An essential matter is family relationships. Unfortunately, from time to time conflicts between husband and wife happen, and it may result in child’s suffering, nevertheless, those in themselves may not cause abuse. Parents, who are constantly depressed or have some kind of mental illness, are incapable to take care of themselves and usually leave their children alone. Thus, they can hardly be normal, caring parents, epitomizing proper behavior. Parental factors that lead to child abuse include unwanted pregnancy, repeated abuse of a child, isolation and lack of support, mental illnesses of parents, lack parenting knowledge, and unrealistic expectations of the child. To the outcomes of these factors belong hostility, low self-esteem, low intelligence, loneliness, depression, anxiety, apathy, fear of rejection, immaturity, distrust, dependency, drug or alcohol abuse, unsupported mothers and others. Parents’ lack of parenting skills also needs to be alerted, as it is a risk factor. Teen parents, for example, might have unrealistic expectations about how much care babies and small children need. The next essential point this paper considers is the identification of maltreatment. If a child happens to be a victim of maltreatment, it is necessary to know about the calamity as promptly as possible in order to avoid irreparable psychological repercussions. There are different warning signs, which vary depending on the type of abuse. Unusual extremes in behavior, anxiety, fear of touch, unkempt appearance, neglected illnesses, unexplained bruises and scars are among them and should be deeply conceived. Child maltreatment is usually associated with social exclusion, social disadvantage, and problems in family relationships, family breakdown and characteristics of family members. Domestic violence and emotional maltreatment often emerge as key features, which characterize families involved in maltreating. It should be noted that the families that are high on criticism and low on warmth carry particular risks for children and their psychological state. It is claimed that victims of childhood abuse suffer from different types of physical health problems during their whole life. The most common symptoms of their sufferings are chronic pelvic, head, abdominal or muscular pain without any identifiable reason. Child maltreatment includes all types of abuse and neglect of a child. Psychological maltreatment is a behavior pattern that conveys to children that they are flawed, worthless, unloved, endangered, unwanted, or only of value in meeting needs of others. The categories of psychological maltreatment are as follows: · Terrorizing (placing a child in a dangerous situation, threatening violence against a child); · Spurning (hostile rejecting, belittling, ridiculing); · Isolating (restricting the child from social interactions, placing unreasonable limitations on the child’s movement freedom, confining the child); · Denying emotional responsiveness (failing to express affection, ignoring the child's attempts to interact); · Exploiting or corrupting (encouraging prostitution, modeling antisocial behavior such as criminal activities, permitting substance abuse); · Mental health, educational, and medical neglect (ignoring the need for services for serious educational needs, refusing to allow or failing to provide treatment for medical problems or serious mental disorders). The consequences of child maltreatment can last throughout the whole life. Maltreatment can result in mental health issues, physical changes in the development of brain, disruption to education and social relationships, difficulties in forming and maintaining relationships and behavioral problems. The fourth point this paper uncovers is abusive behavior or neglectful faint notes towards oneself. For a person, it is significant to be sensible and fair towards himself or herself and not to ignore the matter mentioned on the primary stage – it is a good preventive measure. Recognizing that you have a problem is the biggest step to getting help. In some cases children themselves are abuse factors. Hence, the child factors include a physical or developmental disability, the fact that a child is unwanted, colicky or sickly, lack of attachment between a child and parents/a parent and others. One of the most essential things about child abuse is reporting child maltreatment. If one notices any hint of abusive or neglectful behavior towards a child, he or she is obliged to turn to special services to make a thorough inquest of the case and undertake the required measures. It is substantial because slight aftereffects may quickly develop into serious lifelong psychological trauma. If one suspects that a child is being abused, it is essential to provide the child with appropriate help. Only because many people do not want to get involved in the families of other people, they keep silent and worsen the situation. The person who reports child abuse breaks the cycle, which affects future relationships and self-esteem. It is necessary to remember that reporting child abuse does not mean that the child will be taken from home. In addition, in most cases, reporting is anonymous and you do not need to give your name. The researchers have found some myths, which stop people from reporting abuse: unwillingness to interfere, fear to ruin somebody’s family and home, lack of knowledge that reporting is actually anonymous, idea that the situation will not change. The first myth is that abuse is always violent. However, there are different types of abuse, including emotional abuse and neglect and their consequences are not immediately visible. The second myth is that only bad people are likely to abuse their children. The fact is that not all people abuse their children intentionally. In many cases, parents have been abuse victims themselves and they do not know any other way of parenting. Some parents may suffer from mental illnesses or have problems with substance abuse. The third myth is that child abuse is avoided in “good” families. However, child abuse may happen in any family irrespective its status, income and neighborhoods. It crosses all economic, racial, and cultural lines. The fourth myth is a suggestion that most abusers are strangers. In fact, most abusers are members of the family, relatives, family friends, caretakers and others. The last myth is a viewpoint that the abused children grow up to be abusers. They really tend to repeat the abuse cycle unconsciously repeating their negative experience; however they may have a strong motivation to protect their children against such experience becoming excellent parents. The last point that should be mentioned in the paper is the hardships to heal psychological repercussions of childhood trauma. There is not any unified treatment course for the victims - each family needs a special approach. One of the problems is that survivors are too willing to expect that positive results are unlikely. Moreover, if the first attempts of treatment fail, survivors might succumb to the idea that they will be exploited and hurt by the very people who are supposed to help them, because of anomalous perception of themselves and the reality. Though it is an arduous task, help for people with childhood traumas has to be provided. Positive results appear due to the individual or group working interaction between a practitioner and a grown-up survivor of child maltreatment. Actually, in some cases it is effective not to just turn to the past without end, but to empower those people in present. The main reason of difficulties related to the help provided to the abused children with psychological trauma is negative experiences of child maltreatment and abuse can seriously affect the developing brain and increase the risk of psychological disorders. A strong relationship has been identified between abuse and post-traumatic stress disorder. It has been proven that diagnosing children with post-traumatic stress disorders cannot capture the full developmental chronic effects of child maltreatment and abuse. In this case, it is necessary to speak about the complex trauma with long-lasting effects. Exposure to chronic and complex trauma usually leads to persistent psychological disorders. The difficulty of addressing the complex trauma affects is also related to the interference with a child's capacity to integrate emotional, sensory, and cognitive information, resulting in over-reactive responses to subsequent stress. Therapy, provided to the abused children, is considered to be the art and science to make sense of children’s thoughts, feelings, and behavior as well as learn to improve interactions with others and control their behavior. It is also essential to ensure that the child is safe from the harmful environment or the offender. The treatment of abuse-related problems is not effective in case a child remains in unsafe environment. The treatment process should be guided by certain overriding goals and focused on the abuse itself. The approaches of treatment include help to encourage the child to express feelings about the abuse, talk about the abuse/abuser without anxiety, strengthen the coping skills of a child, and educate the strategies of self-protection, etc. Group treatment for abused children can also have positive effects. However, in some cases, such treatment may be associated with increased behavior problems. That is why therapists have to carefully monitor group participants’ behavior. It is worth emphasizing that a central precept of psychoanalysis is that the conflicts that cause the most important psychological and behavioral problems arise in early childhood. The connection between child trauma and psychological disorders throughout all stages of life is very strong; therefore the issue of maltreatment towards children is an important problem. The series of cases of child abuse and neglect are still not broken because of the complexity of points, which should be taken into account. The aspects involved include scientific, medical, psychological, moral, social and juridical ones. For the reason that negative psychological consequences are a serious matter and are hard to treat, preventive undertakings along with screening and assessment of the problem’s issues are necessary. Thus, the consequences of child abuse, especially psychological ones, vary depending on the circumstances of the abuse, the child's environment, personal characteristics of the child, age and others. These consequences may be severe or mild, disappear in a short period, and affect the child behaviorally, psychologically, or/and physically. It is essential to know that the earlier the child abuse is caught and reported, the better the recovery chances and appropriate treatment for the child is guaranteed. As child abuse is not always obvious, it is vital to be aware of the most common warning signs of child maltreatment and abuse. Abusive families tend to be isolated from their neighbors and the community showing less participation in community activities and making less use of available social, health and economic resources. This is the main reason why abuse identification and treatment is a difficult task.
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